Historical Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura
Developed by the Romulus and the Remus in 753BC, Rome was the first center of the roman republic and was considered the Christian capital of the Roman Empire. In 1990 the world heritage sites extended to Rome’s religious and public buildings, followed by many other places such as, the Mausoleum of Hadrian, the Mausoleum of Augustus, Pantheon, and Trajan’s Column. Being named a world heritage site was a tremendous moment for Roman history.
The Holy See is one of the many historical landmarks that contributed to Rome becoming a world heritage site. The Holy See, also known as the See of Rome, is under the jurisdiction of the Pope and located in the Vatican. The Holy See, as well as the buildings and areas of worship surrounding it, have had significant impact on the art and culture of the Christian world, and continue to influence the modern age.
Though the Roman Empire, and the landscape surrounding the Holy See underwent many changes throughout history, the Holy See remained a sovereign territory under the Vatican. In 1929, a treaty was signed between Italy and the Holy See. This treaty’s primary aim is simple, which includes that all the extraterritorial properties situated in Italy remain under Holy See.
These include several places that have tremendous importance, and also include three historic churches. After this treaty’s signature, Bernini and Borromini renovated the significant areas of the Holy See that include the Palazzo Maffei, the Palazzo di San Callisto, and the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide.
The artistic look of the Holy See is rivaled by the religious value of the neighboring Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore became a part of the tremendous urban plan in Rome, and is an artistic and architectural phenomenon. It has a typical bell tower that makes it unique from others architecture in the area, and is a classical feature of the Roman scenes.
San Giovanni became known as the first cathedral of Rome city in 312BC after Emperor Constantine ordered the Pope to establish the episcopal chair. Following years of revolutions, conflict, and neglect, Pope Innocent X, looking forward to the impending Holy Year of 1650, set out to restore the appearance of San Giovanni. Completed by Francesco Borromini in 1649, San Giovanni became an architectural and artistic gem within the Roman city. Containing several historically significant relics, a 13th-century cloister, and an ancient baptistery, San Giovanni now represents the vibrant culture and faith of the Roman people.
San Paolo fuori le Mura
San Paolo Fuori le Mura, a heavily restored 4th century church was initially constructed at Constantine’s request in 324BC. Originally built as a small modest building, it is said that the San Paolo Fuori le Mura rests on top of Saint Paul’s shrine.
San Paolo Fuori le Mura has undergone extensive modifications since its original build in 324BC. Between 384BC and 386BC, the original building was demolished and replaced by a vastly bigger structure. The structure stood for centuries to come only to be destroyed by fire in 1823. After its destruction, architect Poletti rebuilt the historic structure and was able to construct it back to it’s original architect by 1854. It is considered a great piece of architectural heritage as it has a complex but unique structure inside and out with a mixture of various culture, and carries historical significance as it applies to Saint Paul’s shrine.