Mohenjo-Daro was an important city of the old culture of the Indus river valley. Together with Harapa, it was one of the first and most important urban settlements in the world. Both ruins are in the territory of the present Republic of Pakistan.
Although its ancient name is unknown, its current name literally means ‘mound of the dead.
- 28 km south of the small town of Larkana
- 433 km northeast of the city of Karachi (16.4 million inhabitants), the most populous in Pakistan
- 1050 km southwest of the city of Islamabad (1.4 million inhabitants), the capital of Pakistan.
It is known that it was built around 2600 BC and on the banks of the Indus River by the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley culture. It was one of the first and most important urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete.
The discovery of the cities of Mojensho Daro and Harapa has revealed the existence of a totally unknown culture, since, until that moment, archeology and history were completely unaware that civilization had existed about 4,500 years ago, in the valley of the Indus. At present, it is still unknown who the people who lived in the Indus Valley were, and it is not known where they came from, as no one has been able to decipher their writing.
Archaeological ruins of Mohenjo-Daro
It is estimated that at its peak, Mojensho-Daro had 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Some researchers have affirmed that it could have reached as many as 200,000. The city was surrounded by defensive walls of fired brick, covered 1 km² in area and included the area of the citadel, where the administrative center was located, and that of the lower city, where the neighborhoods of artisans, residential areas, granaries, and warehouses were grouped.
Already its first excavations revealed the level of development and avant-garde of this civilization, from the point of view of urban perfection and as a perfectly constituted society. It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia in its time, showing very sophisticated engineering (with wells, advanced sewage systems, and bathrooms in houses) and urban planning for its time.
The total absence of temples and palaces, or even some type of symbolism associated with this type of institution common to all known civilizations, is one of the first questions that amaze this enigmatic place. The buildings that remain standing follow a uniform pattern, highlighting their construction on one or two floors in adobe bricks with the absence of ornaments and windows.
Indus Valley Civilization
Mojensho-Daro, along with Harapa, are considered the two most important cities of the ancient civilization of the valley of the Indus River, in times prior to the Aryan invasions in the region (around 1800. N. E. A the same as the culture of Sumer, culture The Indus Valley apparently also arose suddenly, it is not known what could be traces of a previous evolution before Mojenho-Daro and Jalapa. The appearance of this civilization remains a true mystery, but so is its disappearance, initially attributed to the presence of invading peoples of Indo-European origin, but happened two or three centuries before the invaders from the north.